Somalia is at a turning point, in need of a sustainable resolution to decades of instability and threatened by militants including the Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Shabab and a splinter of the Islamic State militant group (ISIS). It needs the help of the United States.
The United States government must increase financial, military, security and intelligence-sharing support to Somalia. The threats and security risks facing Somalia are many and include: instability; protracted violence perpetrated by Al-Shabab and ISIS; the proliferation of small arms; unprotected borders; piracy; poverty; and chronic youth unemployment. If these threats and risks are not immediately tackled, the U.S. national security and regional interests will be profoundly affected.
The Somali government does not have the resources (financial and institutional) to tackle Al-Shabab and ISIS threats. At the moment, while the political will and commitment exist, the government lacks adequate military and security institutions and resources that can support counter-terrorism strategy in the governance and security sector.
Strengthening the government’s national security policymaking structures, institutions and financial resources is essential. This could be done in a wide effort that seeks both to improve training for security services, ministries and institutions to deliver a broader campaign of improved security. The delivery of specialized training, equipment, payment of stipends, rehabilitation of office spaces and establishing standard operating procedures (SOPs) and management systems are the main structural challenges.
In addition, the lack of adequate command leadership to develop defense policies serve as a serious limitation toward improving the effectiveness and professional standards of the military, police and state security services in regards to adherence to the rule of law, respect for rights and the protection of civilians. Right sizing, doctrinal development, integration of the various militias and professionalism remain a huge challenge for the new federal government.
Somalia fell into civil war in the early 1990s, and after 20 years without an effective legal system and rule of law, Somali security forces are not socialized to the idea of criminals being prosecuted. This lost generation also means that there is a lack of experience within the judiciary. Access to justice is also limited as the judiciary and courts are not equipped and functioning effectively. The perverse interpretation of Islam by Al-Shabab, Al-Qaeda and ISIS has resulted in multiple, flagrant abuses of rights.
The civilian populations are subjected to targeted killings and assaults, repressive forms of social control, and brutal punishments under Al-Shabab’s draconian interpretation of Sharia law. The absence of Sharia law was an original Al-Shabab claim.
Reconstituting security services will help to overcome the threats, risks and important challenges identified above. The Somali military ultimately offers an opportunity to improve the quality of defense and police forces and assist Somalia’s battle against terrorism, piracy, and criminal organizations.
Security and stability are the key foundation for building lasting peace and prosperity in Somalia. The U.S. government can support the federal government in Somalia tackle insecurity and conflict through strengthening security and rule of law sectors. Somalia requires sustainable programs to overcome insurgency challenges presented by the post-conflict environment in the country. The program therefore must support training of security officers, promote security and help foster public trust and confidence.
The new program should adopt a new approach based on needs, priorities and accessibility depending on the security requirements in federal regions. As the state security institutions and rule of law become established, the U.S. should seek more opportunities to expand it and work more systematically on issues of security.
Somali security forces have been lacking the capabilities and resources needed to fulfill the security and stabilization objectives of the federal government. The international community have not manned, trained, equipped and sustained forces, which has not allowed the government of the to make improvements in our posture. The federal government does not have the budget to support the stated goal of disrupting, dismantling and defeating Al-Shabab and ISIS and eliminating their safe havens in Somalia.
Without funding, the Somali government would be incapable of countering the increasing threats of Al-Shabab and ISIS that endanger the peace and stability in Somalia. Improving counter-terrorism and counterinsurgency capabilities of the federal government; gaining the trust of the population; and facilitating the rule of law throughout Somalia will help set the conditions for Somalis to secure their own country and legitimize governance.
Failure to fund Somalia’s requirements is significantly restricting the combat capability and sustainment capacity of the Somali security forces. Without increased U.S. funding, the government’s full range of activities cannot be performed and their mission effectiveness would be significantly limited. It would perpetuate a conflict that has already gone on far too long.